What is Embark?

Bella

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See what’s hidden in the pages of Bella’s DNA story. You can learn about the breeds that make Bella who she is, her genetic family tree, and even go back in time to see where her ancestors came from.

“Bella was one of 8 pups born to a stray that had been picked up by animal control and then taken in by the Humane Society of Blue Ridge. I whelped the dog out for them and raised the pups til they were 9 wks old. Bella became mine and we found homes for the other 7 through hsbr. Can't wait to know what her dna shows.”

What’s your dog’s story? Find out with Embark!

Genetic Stats

Wolfiness: 0.8 % MEDIUM Help
Predicted Adult Weight: 46 lbs Help
Genetic Age: 18 human years Help

Embark family

Explore other Embark dogs that have one or more breed percentages that are similar to Bella

Breed Mix By Chromosome

Our advanced test identifies from where Bella inherited every part of the chromosome pairs in her genome. Each chromosome section is colored to represent the breed that it comes from.

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Swipe left and right to explore more results, or choose a category below

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Bella’s family.

Health

>
We have tested Bella for over 160 genetic health conditions to alert her owner to potential issues before they strike.

Traits

>
Genes for coat color and type, body size and shape, and other characteristics.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about other dog breeds related to the breeds found in Bella.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Bella’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Bella’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Bella’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Bella’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Bella find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

 
Large screen pedigre From Embark PARENTS GRANDPARENTS GREAT GRANDPARENTS Border Collie mix Great Pyrenees mix Border Collie German Shepherd Dog / Siberian Husky mix Great Pyrenees Bulldog / Boxer mix Border Collie Border Collie German Shepherd Dog Siberian Husky Great Pyrenees Great Pyrenees Bulldog Boxer mix
Explore by tapping your dog’s parents and grand parents.

Our algorithms predict this is the most likely family tree to explain Bella’s breed mix, but this family tree may not be the only possible one.

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Swipe left and right to explore more results, or choose a category below

Health

>
We have tested Bella for over 160 genetic health conditions to alert her owner to potential issues before they strike.

Traits

>
Genes for coat color and type, body size and shape, and other characteristics.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about other dog breeds related to the breeds found in Bella.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Bella’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Bella’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Bella’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Bella find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Summary

0
AT RISK
0
CARRIER
157
CLEAR
Tap above or scroll down to see more

Clinical traits

These genetic traits are valuable to your veterinarian and can inform the clinical decisions and diagnoses they make.

Alanine Aminotransferase Activity result: Normal
Known to be highly expressed in liver cells, activity levels of alanine aminotransferase, or ALT, is a common value on most blood chemistry panels and is known to be a se…
Bella has two normal alleles at ALT.

Not At Risk

Good news! Bella did not test positive for any of the genetic diseases that Embark screens for. Read on to learn more about the conditions we test for, but rest assured that Bella does not have the mutations known to cause them.

It is still important to let your veterinarian know these results because they could help guide Bella’s diagnosis and treatment if she gets sick in the future. Many other diseases caused by environmental factors or undiscovered genetic variants can cause symptoms similar to diseases we test for. By ruling out these mutations, your veterinarian will be able to find the true cause more quickly. Your veterinarian will also know they can safely prescribe medications some dogs are sensitive to.

Not A Carrier

Good news! Bella is not a carrier for any of the genetic diseases that Embark tests for.

Common conditions

Good news! Bella tested clear for 17 genetic conditions that are common in her breed mix.
Condition List

Multidrug Sensitivity
(MDR1)
Clinical

Sensitivity to certain classes of drugs, notably the parasiticide ivermectin, as well as certain gastroprotectant and anti-cancer medications, occurs in dogs with mutatio…

Seen in Border Collies, Great Pyreneess, German Shepherd Dogs, Siberian Huskys, Boxers, but not Bella.

Factor VIII Deficiency, Hemophilia A
(F8 Exon 10, Boxer Variant)
Blood

Coagulopathies represent a broad category of diseases that affect blood clotting, which can lead to symptoms such as easy bruising or bleeding. Dogs with coagulopathies a…

Seen in Boxers, but not Bella.

Factor VIII Deficiency, Hemophilia A
(F8 Exon 11, Shepherd Variant 1)
Blood

Coagulopathies represent a broad category of diseases that affect blood clotting, which can lead to symptoms such as easy bruising or bleeding. Dogs with coagulopathies a…

Seen in German Shepherd Dogs, but not Bella.

Von Willebrand Disease Type II
(VWF Exon 28)
Blood

Coagulopathies represent a broad category of diseases that affect blood clotting, which can lead to symptoms such as easy bruising or bleeding. Dogs with coagulopathies a…

Seen in Border Collies, but not Bella.

Canine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type III
(FERMT3)
Blood

A rare disorder of white blood cells, this causes increased susceptibility to infections and bleeding tendencies. Affected dogs present with a history of persistent skin …

Seen in German Shepherd Dogs, but not Bella.

Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia Type I
(ITGA2B Exon 13)
Blood

A disease of defective platelet aggregation, this causes affected dogs to bleed excessively in response to mild tissue trauma. Platelets are the first responders to tissu…

Seen in Great Pyreneess, but not Bella.

Trapped Neutrophil Syndrome
(VPS13B)
Blood

A disease of neutrophil production, dogs with TNS are prone to recurrent bacterial infections that must be recognized and treated early. Neutrophils, like all other white…

Seen in Border Collies, but not Bella.

Collie Eye Anomaly, Choroidal Hypoplasia
(NHEJ1)
Eyes

Named for its high prevalence in Collie dogs, Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) is more correctly termed choroidal hypoplasia and is a developmental disease of the choroid. The ch…

Seen in Border Collies, but not Bella.

Canine Multifocal Retinopathy
cmr1 (BEST1 Exon 2)
Eyes

This is a nonprogressive retinal disease that, in rare cases, can lead to vision loss. All known mutations lie in the BEST1 gene and are inherited in an autosomal recessi…

Seen in Great Pyreneess, but not Bella.

Hyperuricosuria and Hyperuricemia or Urolithiasis
(SLC2A9)
Kidney and Bladder

This condition causes kidney and bladder stones composed of urate; if caught early, it is responsive to dietary management. Uric acid is an intermediate of purine metabol…

Seen in German Shepherd Dogs, but not Bella.

X-linked Ectodermal Dysplasia, Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia
(EDA Intron 8)
Multisystem

This developmental condition can cause a scanty haircoat, malformed teeth, and few or absent sweat glands. Because dogs only have sweat glands on their paw pads, they are…

Seen in German Shepherd Dogs, but not Bella.

Renal Cystadenocarcinoma and Nodular Dermatofibrosis (RCND)
(FLCN Exon 7)
Multisystem

A multiorgan syndrome best described in the German Shepherd Dog, affected dogs display thick skin nodules and signs of kidney disease, and should be evaluated by a veteri…

Seen in German Shepherd Dogs, but not Bella.

Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VII, Sly Syndrome
(GUSB Exon 3)
Multisystem

A type of lysosomal storage disease, this can cause skeletal abnormalities, growth retardation, and gait abnormalities, and can require close monitoring and special measu…

Seen in German Shepherd Dogs, but not Bella.

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis 1
(CLN5 Exon 4 Variant 1)
Multisystem

This form of lysosomal storage disease can cause juvenile to adult-onset neurologic signs, depending on the affected gene. While lipofuscin is commonly observed in the ti…

Seen in Border Collies, but not Bella.

Degenerative Myelopathy
(SOD1A)
Brain and Spinal Cord

A disease of mature dogs, this is a progressive degenerative disorder of the spinal cord that can cause muscle wasting and gait abnormalities. Affected dogs do not usuall…

Seen in Border Collies, Great Pyreneess, German Shepherd Dogs, Siberian Huskys, Boxers, but not Bella.

Myotonia Congenita
(CLCN1 Exon 23)
Muscular

This condition is characterized by prolonged muscle contraction and stiffness that usually resolves with normal exercise, though physical therapy can be beneficial. The g…

Seen in Border Collies, but not Bella.

Imerslund-Grasbeck Syndrome, Selective Cobalamin Malabsorption
(CUBN Exon 53)
Gastro-intestinal

This is a treatable gastrointestinal disease where dogs cannot absorb cobalamin, often causing them to be runty with poor energy levels. Cobalamin is required for synthes…

Seen in Border Collies, but not Bella.

Other Conditions: Clear of 140

Bella is clear of 140 other genetic diseases that Embark tests for.

Explore more

Swipe left and right to explore more results, or choose a category below

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Bella’s family.

Traits

>
Genes for coat color and type, body size and shape, and other characteristics.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about other dog breeds related to the breeds found in Bella.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Bella’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Bella’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Bella’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Bella find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

 

Traits report  BETA

Coat Color

A number of genetic loci are known to affect coat color in dogs, and they all interact. In some cases, other genetic effects may also influence color and pattern.

Some other Embark dogs with this Coat Color genotype:

E Locus (Mask/Grizzle/Red)
EmE or Eme
Chromosome 5

Controls the characteristic melanistic mask seen in the German Shepherd and Pug as well as the grizzled "widow's peak" of the Afghan and Borzoi. Melanistic mask (Em) is dominant to grizzle (Eg) which is dominant to black (E) and red (e). Dogs that are EE or Ee are able to produce normal black pigment, but its distribution will be dependent on the genotypes at the K and A Loci. Dogs that are ee will be a shade of red or cream regardless of their genotype at K and A. The shade of red, which can range from a deep copper like the Irish Setter to the near-white of some Golden Retrievers, is dependent on other genetic factors including the Intensity (I) Locus, which has yet to be genetically mapped.

Want to help us map I Locus? If you haven't already, complete your ee pup's Embark profile with a photo! Remember, a picture is worth a thousand words!

Citations: Schmutz et al 2003 , Dreger and Schmutz 2010 ,

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/masks.html

K Locus (Dominant Black)
KBky
Chromosome 16

Causes a dominant black coat. Dogs with a dominant KB allele have black coats regardless of their genotype at the A locus; the coat color of dogs homozygous for the recessive ky allele are controlled by A locus. Alleles: KB > ky

Citations: Candille et al 2007

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/black.htm

A Locus (Agouti)
aya or ayat
Chromosome 24

Determines whether hair pigment is produced in a banded red and black pattern or solid black. Fawn or sable (ay) is dominant to wolf sable (aw) which is dominant to black-and-tan (at), which is in turn dominant to recessive black (a).

Citations: Berryere et al 2005 , Dreger and Schmutz 2011 ,

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/tan.html

D Locus (Dilute)
DD
Chromosome 25

Lightens a black coat to blue and a red coat to buff. A dilute phenotype requires two copies of the recessive d allele.

Citations: Drogemuller et al 2007

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/dilutes.html

B Locus (Brown/Chocolate/Liver)
BB
Chromosome 11

Lightens a black coat to brown, chocolate or liver. The brown phenotype requires two copies of the recessive b allele. Red or cream dogs that carry two b alleles remain red or cream but have brown noses and footpads.

Citations: Schmutz et al 2002

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/liver.html

Other Coat Traits

Furnishings, shedding and curls are all genetic! And they all interact, too. In fact, the combination of these genetic loci explain the coat phenotypes of 90% of AKC registered dog breeds.

For more information on the genetics of coat types you can refer to https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897713/figure/F3/

Some other Embark dogs with this Coat Traits genotype:

Long Haircoat (FGF5)
TT
Chromosome 32

Confers a long, silky haircoat as observed in the Yorkshire Terrier and the Long Haired Whippet. The "T" allele is associated with longer hair.

Citations: Housley & Venta 2006 , Cadieu et al 2010

Shedding (MC5R)
CT
Chromosome 1

Affects shedding propensity in non-wire-haired dogs. Dogs with the ancestral C allele, like many Labradors and German Shepherd Dogs, are heavy or seasonal shedders, while those with one or more T allele, including many Boxers, Shih Tzus and Chihuahuas, tend to be low shedders. Dogs with furnished/wire-haired coats tend to be low shedders regardless of their MC5R genotype.

Citations: Hayward et al 2016

Curly Coat (KRT71)
CC
Chromosome 27

Causes the curly coat characteristic of Poodles and Bichons Frises. Dogs need at least one copy of the "T" allele to have a curly coat.

Citations: Cadieu et al 2010

Other Body Features

Brachycephaly (BMP3)
CC
Chromosome 32

Affects skull size and shape. Many brachycephalic or "smushed face” breeds such as the English Bulldog, Pug, and Pekingese have two copies of the derived A allele. Mesocephalic (Staffordshire Terrier, Labrador) and dolichocephalic (Whippet, Collie) dogs have one, or more commonly two, copies of the ancestral C allele. At least five different genes affect snout length in dogs, with BMP3 being the only one with a known causal mutation. For example, the skull shape of some breeds, including the dolichocephalic Scottish Terrier or the brachycephalic Japanese Chin, appear to be caused by other genes.

Citations: Schoenbeck et al 2012

Hind Dewclaws (LMBR1)
CT
Chromosome 16

Common in certain breeds, hind dewclaws are extra, nonfunctional digits located midway between your dog's paw and hock. Dogs with at least one copy of the T allele have about a 50% of chance of having hind dewclaws.

Citations: Park et al 2008

Body Size

Body size is a complex trait that is affected by both genetic and environmental variation. Our genetic analysis includes genes that, together, explain over 80% of the variation in dog body size. It does not account for runting or stunting; nor does it account for the interactions between various genes both known and unknown.

Some other Embark dogs with this Body Size genotype:

Body Size - IGF1
NN
Chromosome 15

The "I" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Sutter et al 2007

Body Size - IGF1R
GG
Chromosome 3

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Hoopes et al 2012

Body Size - STC2
TT
Chromosome 4

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Body Size - GHR (E195K)
GG
Chromosome 4

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Body Size - GHR (P177L)
CC
Chromosome 4

The "T" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Performance

Altitude Adaptation (EPAS1)
GG
Chromosome 10

Confers hypoxia tolerance. Dogs with at least one A allele are more tolerant of high altitude environments. This mutation was originally identified in breeds from high altitude areas such as the Tibetan Mastiff.

Citations: Gou et al 2014

Explore more

Swipe left and right to explore more results, or choose a category below

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Bella’s family.

Health

>
We have tested Bella for over 160 genetic health conditions to alert her owner to potential issues before they strike.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about other dog breeds related to the breeds found in Bella.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Bella’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Bella’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Bella’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Bella find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

DNA shows us the unique path to each of today’s recognized breeds by exposing the relatedness between them.
Border Collie
4 related breeds
Border Collie
Border Collies are highly energetic and work oriented herding dogs, whose stamina is matched by their intelligence and alertness. If you want the smartest dog out there, then you have come to the right place!
Related Breeds
Bearded Collie
Cousin breed
Collie
Cousin breed
Australian Shepherd
Cousin breed
Shetland Sheepdog
Cousin breed
Bulldog
4 related breeds
Bulldog
Originally a bull-baiting dog, bulldogs today are gentle and loving while still carrying the stocky frame of their forbearers.
Related Breeds
American Bulldog
Sibling breed
French Bulldog
Sibling breed
Boxer
Cousin breed
Bull Terrier
Cousin breed
Great Pyrenees
3 related breeds
Great Pyrenees
The Great Pyrenees is an exceptionally loving dog whose primary function is to protect sheep, goats, livestock, people, children, grass, flowers, the moon, lawn furniture, and any real or imaginary predators that may intrude on your personal space. They have a strong build and an amazing thick white coat that exudes elegance and majesty. They make a great family dog because of their intelligence and steady temperament.
Related Breeds
Pyrenean Mastiff
Sibling breed
Pyrenean Shepherd
Cousin breed
Anatolian Shepherd Dog
Cousin breed
Siberian Husky
3 related breeds
Siberian Husky
Bred initially in Northern Siberia, the Siberian Husky is a medium-sized working dog who is quick and light on their feet. Their moderately compact and well furred body, erect ears and brush tail suggest their Northern heritage. Huskies are very active and energetic and are known for being long distance sled dogs.
Related Breeds
Alaskan Malamute
Sibling breed
Greenland Dog
Sibling breed
Samoyed
Cousin breed
Boxer
6 related breeds
Boxer
Developed in Germany, the Boxer is a popular family dognull-patient, loyal and smartnull-requiring lots of exercise and proper training.
Related Breeds
American Bulldog
Sibling breed
Bulldog
Sibling breed
French Bulldog
Sibling breed
Olde English Bulldogge
Sibling breed
Dogue de Bordeaux
Sibling breed
Cane Corso
Cousin breed

Some images and text courtesy of the AKC, used with permission.

Explore more

Swipe left and right to explore more results, or choose a category below

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Bella’s family.

Health

>
We have tested Bella for over 160 genetic health conditions to alert her owner to potential issues before they strike.

Traits

>
Genes for coat color and type, body size and shape, and other characteristics.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Bella’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Bella’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Bella’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Bella find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Through Bella’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace her mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that her ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

A1b

Haplotype

A18/19/20/21/27/36/94/109

A1b

Bella’s Haplogroup

This female lineage was very likely one of the original lineages in the wolves that were first domesticated into dogs in Central Asia about 15,000 years ago. Since then, the lineage has been very successful and travelled the globe! Dogs from this group are found in ancient Bronze Age fossils in the Middle East and southern Europe. By the end of the Bronze Age, it became exceedingly common in Europe. These dogs later became many of the dogs that started some of today's most popular breeds, like German Shepherds, Pugs, Whippets, English Sheepdogs and Miniature Schnauzers. During the period of European colonization, the lineage became even more widespread as European dogs followed their owners to far-flung places like South America and Oceania. It's now found in many popular breeds as well as village dogs across the world!

A18/19/20/21/27/36/94/109

Bella’s Haplotype

Part of the large A1b haplogroup, we see this haplotype in village dogs in over 25 countries across the world. We have detected this haplotype in lots of breeds, and it occurs most commonly in German Shepherd Dogs, Maltese, English Springer Spaniels, and English Setters.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

A1b is the most common haplogroup found in German Shepherds.

Explore more

Swipe left and right to explore more results, or choose a category below

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Bella’s family.

Health

>
We have tested Bella for over 160 genetic health conditions to alert her owner to potential issues before they strike.

Traits

>
Genes for coat color and type, body size and shape, and other characteristics.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about other dog breeds related to the breeds found in Bella.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Bella’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Bella find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

There are no deep ancestral lineage results for Bella on her father’s side.

Unlike recent ancestry ("What breeds are in my dog?"), the deep ancestral lineage traces the migration of a dog’s male relatives back in time to the very dawn of dogs.

Male ancestral lineage is passed down father-to-son on the Y sex chromosome. Since female dogs receive two X sex chromosomes and no Y chromosome, their male heritage line is not visible as they have no Y chromosome.

Explore more

Swipe left and right to explore more results, or choose a category below

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Bella’s family.

Health

>
We have tested Bella for over 160 genetic health conditions to alert her owner to potential issues before they strike.

Traits

>
Genes for coat color and type, body size and shape, and other characteristics.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about other dog breeds related to the breeds found in Bella.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Bella’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Bella’s family has traveled.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Bella find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!