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Betty

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See what’s hidden in the pages of Betty’s DNA story. You can learn about the breeds that make Betty who she is, her genetic family tree, and even go back in time to see where her ancestors came from.

“Extremely gifted dog of leisure and science.”

Breed mix

Genetic Stats

Wolfiness: 0.6 % LOW Help
Predicted Adult Weight: 62 lbs Help
Genetic Age: 55 human years Help

Embark family

Explore other Embark dogs that have one or more breed percentages that are similar to Betty

Family tree

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Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Betty’s family.

Breed Families

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Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Betty.

Maternal Line

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Through the DNA inherited from Betty’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Betty’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

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The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Betty’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Betty’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Betty find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

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Explore by tapping your dog’s parents and grand parents.
 
Parents
Grandparents
Great Grandparents

Our algorithms predict this is the most likely family tree to explain Betty’s breed mix, but this family tree may not be the only possible one.

Breed Families

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Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Betty.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Betty’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Betty’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Betty’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Betty’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Betty find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit
DNA shows us the unique path to each of today’s recognized breeds by exposing the relatedness between them.
Boxer
6 related breeds
Boxer
Developed in Germany, the Boxer is a popular family dognull-patient, loyal and smartnull-requiring lots of exercise and proper training.
Related Breeds
American Bulldog
Sibling breed
English Bulldog
Sibling breed
French Bulldog
Sibling breed
Olde English Bulldogge
Sibling breed
Dogue de Bordeaux
Sibling breed
Cane Corso
Cousin breed

Some images and text courtesy of the AKC, used with permission.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Betty’s family.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Betty’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Betty’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Betty’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Betty’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Betty find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit

Through Betty’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace her mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that her ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

A1d

Haplotype

A91/11/378

A1d

Betty’s Haplogroup

This female lineage can be traced back about 15,000 years to some of the original Central Asian wolves that were domesticated into modern dogs. The early females that represent this lineage were likely taken into Eurasia, where they spread rapidly. As a result, many modern breed and village dogs from the Americas, Africa, through Asia and down into Oceania belong to this group! This widespread lineage is not limited to a select few breeds, but the majority of Rottweilers, Afghan Hounds and Wirehaired Pointing Griffons belong to it. It is also the most common female lineage among Papillons, Samoyeds and Jack Russell Terriers. Considering its occurrence in breeds as diverse as Afghan Hounds and Samoyeds, some of this is likely ancient variation. But because of its presence in many modern European breeds, much of its diversity likely can be attributed to much more recent breeding.

A91/11/378

Betty’s Haplotype

Part of the large A1d haplogroup, this common haplotype occurs in village dogs all over the world. Among the 29 breeds that we have detected it in to date, the most frequent breeds we see expressing it are Afghan Hounds, Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs, and Borzois.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

The vast majority of Rottweilers have the A1d haplogroup.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Betty’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Betty.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Betty’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Betty’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Betty find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit

There are no deep ancestral lineage results for Betty on her father’s side.

Unlike recent ancestry ("What breeds are in my dog?"), the deep ancestral lineage traces the migration of a dog’s male relatives back in time to the very dawn of dogs.

Male ancestral lineage is passed down father-to-son on the Y sex chromosome. Since female dogs receive two X sex chromosomes and no Y chromosome, their male heritage line is not visible as they have no Y chromosome.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Betty’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Betty.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Betty’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Betty’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Betty’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Betty find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit
 

Traits report  BETA

Coat Color

A number of genetic loci are known to affect coat color in dogs, and they all interact. In some cases, other genetic effects may also influence color and pattern.

Some other Embark dogs with this Coat Color genotype:

E Locus (Mask/Grizzle/Red)
EmEm
Chromosome 5

Controls the characteristic melanistic mask seen in the German Shepherd and Pug as well as the grizzled "widow's peak" of the Afghan and Borzoi. Melanistic mask (Em) is dominant to grizzle (Eg) which is dominant to black (E) and red (e). Dogs that are EE or Ee are able to produce normal black pigment, but its distribution will be dependent on the genotypes at the K and A Loci. Dogs that are ee will be a shade of red or cream regardless of their genotype at K and A. The shade of red, which can range from a deep copper like the Irish Setter to the near-white of some Golden Retrievers, is dependent on other genetic factors including the Intensity (I) Locus, which has yet to be genetically mapped.

Want to help us map I Locus? If you haven't already, complete your ee pup's Embark profile with a photo! Remember, a picture is worth a thousand words!

Citations: Schmutz et al 2003 , Dreger and Schmutz 2010 ,

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/masks.html

K Locus (Dominant Black)
kyky
Chromosome 16

Causes a dominant black coat. Dogs with a dominant KB allele have black coats regardless of their genotype at the A locus; the coat color of dogs homozygous for the recessive ky allele are controlled by A locus. Alleles: KB > ky

Citations: Candille et al 2007

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/black.htm

A Locus (Agouti)
ayay
Chromosome 24

Determines whether hair pigment is produced in a banded red and black pattern or solid black. Fawn or sable (ay) is dominant to wolf sable (aw) which is dominant to black-and-tan (at), which is in turn dominant to recessive black (a).

Citations: Berryere et al 2005 , Dreger and Schmutz 2011 ,

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/tan.html

D Locus (Dilute)
DD
Chromosome 25

Lightens a black coat to blue and a red coat to buff. A dilute phenotype requires two copies of the recessive d allele.

Citations: Drogemuller et al 2007

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/dilutes.html

B Locus (Brown/Chocolate/Liver)
BB
Chromosome 11

Lightens a black coat to brown, chocolate or liver. The brown phenotype requires two copies of the recessive b allele. Red or cream dogs that carry two b alleles remain red or cream but have brown noses and footpads.

Citations: Schmutz et al 2002

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/liver.html

Other Coat Traits

Furnishings, shedding and curls are all genetic! And they all interact, too. In fact, the combination of these genetic loci explain the coat phenotypes of 90% of AKC registered dog breeds.

For more information on the genetics of coat types you can refer to https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897713/figure/F3/

Some other Embark dogs with this Coat Traits genotype:

Furnishings / Improper Coat (RSPO2)
II
Chromosome 13

Confers the distinguished moustache, beard, and eyebrows characteristic of breeds like the Schnauzer, Scottish Terrier, and Wire Haired Dachshund; only one copy of the dominant F allele is required for furnishings. The FI genotype is furnished but is an improper coat carrier. A dog with two I alleles has improper coat. The mutation is a 167-bp insertion which we measure indirectly using linked markers highly correlated with the insertion.

Citations: Cadieu et al 2010

Long Haircoat (FGF5)
GG
Chromosome 32

Confers a long, silky haircoat as observed in the Yorkshire Terrier and the Long Haired Whippet. The "T" allele is associated with longer hair.

Citations: Housley & Venta 2006 , Cadieu et al 2010

Shedding (MC5R)
TT
Chromosome 1

Affects shedding propensity in non-wire-haired dogs. Dogs with the ancestral C allele, like many Labradors and German Shepherd Dogs, are heavy or seasonal shedders, while those with one or more T allele, including many Boxers, Shih Tzus and Chihuahuas, tend to be low shedders. Dogs with furnished/wire-haired coats tend to be low shedders regardless of their MC5R genotype.

Citations: Hayward et al 2016

Curly Coat (KRT71)
CC
Chromosome 27

Causes the curly coat characteristic of Poodles and Bichons Frises. Dogs need at least one copy of the "T" allele to have a curly coat.

Citations: Cadieu et al 2010

Other Body Features

Brachycephaly (BMP3)
CC
Chromosome 32

Affects skull size and shape. Many brachycephalic or "smushed face” breeds such as the English Bulldog, Pug, and Pekingese have two copies of the derived A allele. Mesocephalic (Staffordshire Terrier, Labrador) and dolichocephalic (Whippet, Collie) dogs have one, or more commonly two, copies of the ancestral C allele. At least five different genes affect snout length in dogs, with BMP3 being the only one with a known causal mutation. For example, the skull shape of some breeds, including the dolichocephalic Scottish Terrier or the brachycephalic Japanese Chin, appear to be caused by other genes.

Citations: Schoenbeck et al 2012

Natural Bobtail (T)
CC
Chromosome 1

Whereas most dogs have two C alleles and a long tail, dogs with one G allele are likely to have a bobtail, which is an unusually short or absent tail. This mutation causes natural bobtail in many breeds including the Pembroke Welsh Corgi, the Australian Shepherd, and the Brittany Spaniel. Dogs with GG genotypes have not been observed, suggesting that the GG genotype results in embryonic lethality.

Please note that this mutation does not explain every natural bobtail! While certain lineages of Boston Terrier, English Bulldog, Rottweiler, Miniature Schnauzer, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, and Parson Russell Terrier, and Dobermans are born with a natural bobtail, these breeds do not have this mutation. This suggests that other unknown genetic mutations can also lead to a natural bobtail. If your dog does not have a CG genotype but was born with a bobtail, please email us at howdy@embarkvet.com!

Citations: Haworth et al 2001 , Hytonen et al 2009

Hind Dewclaws (LMBR1)
CC
Chromosome 16

Common in certain breeds, hind dewclaws are extra, nonfunctional digits located midway between your dog's paw and hock. Dogs with at least one copy of the T allele have about a 50% of chance of having hind dewclaws.

Citations: Park et al 2008

Body Size

Body size is a complex trait that is affected by both genetic and environmental variation. Our genetic analysis includes genes that, together, explain over 80% of the variation in dog body size. It does not account for runting or stunting; nor does it account for the interactions between various genes both known and unknown.

Some other Embark dogs with this Body Size genotype:

Body Size - IGF1
NN
Chromosome 15

The "I" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Sutter et al 2007

Body Size - IGF1R
GG
Chromosome 3

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Hoopes et al 2012

Body Size - STC2
AA
Chromosome 4

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Body Size - GHR (E195K)
GG
Chromosome 4

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Body Size - GHR (P177L)
CC
Chromosome 4

The "T" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Performance

Altitude Adaptation (EPAS1)
GG
Chromosome 10

Confers hypoxia tolerance. Dogs with at least one A allele are more tolerant of high altitude environments. This mutation was originally identified in breeds from high altitude areas such as the Tibetan Mastiff.

Citations: Gou et al 2014

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Betty’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Betty.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Betty’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Betty’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Betty’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Betty find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit

Summary

0
AT RISK
0
CARRIER
159
CLEAR
Tap above or scroll down to see more

Clinical traits

These genetic traits are valuable to your veterinarian and can inform the clinical decisions and diagnoses they make.

Alanine Aminotransferase Activity result: Normal
Known to be highly expressed in liver cells, activity levels of alanine aminotransferase, or ALT, is a common value on most blood chemistry panels and is known to be a se…
Betty has two normal alleles at ALT.

Not At Risk

Good news! Betty did not test positive for any of the genetic diseases that Embark screens for. Read on to learn more about the conditions we test for, but rest assured that Betty does not have the mutations known to cause them.

It is still important to let your veterinarian know these results because they could help guide Betty’s diagnosis and treatment if she gets sick in the future. Many other diseases caused by environmental factors or undiscovered genetic variants can cause symptoms similar to diseases we test for. By ruling out these mutations, your veterinarian will be able to find the true cause more quickly. Your veterinarian will also know they can safely prescribe medications some dogs are sensitive to.

Not A Carrier

Good news! Betty is not a carrier for any of the genetic diseases that Embark tests for.

Common conditions

Good news! Betty tested clear for 3 genetic conditions that are common in her breed.
Condition List

Multidrug Sensitivity
(MDR1)
Clinical

Sensitivity to certain classes of drugs, notably the parasiticide ivermectin, as well as certain gastroprotectant and anti-cancer medications, occurs in dogs with mutatio…

Factor VIII Deficiency, Hemophilia A
(F8 Exon 10, Boxer Variant)
Blood

Coagulopathies represent a broad category of diseases that affect blood clotting, which can lead to symptoms such as easy bruising or bleeding. Dogs with coagulopathies a…

Degenerative Myelopathy
(SOD1A)
Brain and Spinal Cord

A disease of mature dogs, this is a progressive degenerative disorder of the spinal cord that can cause muscle wasting and gait abnormalities. Affected dogs do not usuall…

Other Conditions: Clear of 156

Betty is clear of 156 other genetic diseases that Embark tests for.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Betty’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Betty.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Betty’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Betty’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Betty’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Betty find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit