What is Embark?

Cara

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See what’s hidden in the pages of Cara’s DNA story. You can learn about the breeds that make Cara who she is, her genetic family tree, and even go back in time to see where her ancestors came from.

“West Virginia stray turned spoiled millennial. Looks like a little foxhound. Big smile. Cardio for days and an NFL-combine-worthy vertical.”

Genetic Stats

Wolfiness: 1.7 % HIGH Help
Predicted Adult Weight: 53 lbs Help
Genetic Age: 22 human years Help

Embark family

Explore other Embark dogs that have one or more breed percentages that are similar to Cara

Breed Mix By Chromosome

Our advanced test identifies from where Cara inherited every part of the chromosome pairs in her genome. Each chromosome section is colored to represent the breed that it comes from.

Family tree

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Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Cara’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Cara.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Cara’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Cara’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Cara’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Cara’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Cara find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit
 
Large screen pedigre From Embark PARENTS GRANDPARENTS GREAT GRANDPARENTS Staffordshire Terrier mix Foxhound / Coonhound mix Staffordshire Terrier Labrador Retriever / Rottweiler mix Foxhound Coonhound Staffordshire Terrier Staffordshire Terrier Labrador Retriever Rottweiler mix Foxhound Foxhound Coonhound Coonhound
Explore by tapping your dog’s parents and grand parents.

Our algorithms predict this is the most likely family tree to explain Cara’s breed mix, but this family tree may not be the only possible one.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Cara.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Cara’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Cara’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Cara’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Cara’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Cara find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit
DNA shows us the unique path to each of today’s recognized breeds by exposing the relatedness between them.
Staffordshire Terrier
6 related breeds
Staffordshire Terrier
Staffordshire Terriers, sometimes referred to as "pit bull" type, are intelligent and trainable dogs, but unfortunately can be labelled as an aggressive breed group.
Related Breeds
American Bulldog
Sibling breed
Bulldog
Sibling breed
Bull Terrier
Sibling breed
Boston Terrier
Cousin breed
Boxer
Cousin breed
French Bulldog
Cousin breed
Coonhound
6 related breeds
Coonhound
Coonhounds are amazing hunting dogs that were a great help to early American settlers. With proper training they can make good companions and family dogs. It is hard to say no to those huge floppy ears!
Related Breeds
Redbone Coonhound
Sibling breed
Plott
Sibling breed
Black and Tan Coonhound
Sibling breed
Treeing Walker Coonhound
Sibling breed
Bluetick Coonhound
Sibling breed
American Foxhound
Cousin breed
Labrador Retriever
4 related breeds
Labrador Retriever
The Labrador Retriever was bred for hunting and excelled in retrieving game after it was shot down. Known for its gentle disposition and loyalty, the Labrador Retriever has become a favorite of families and breeders alike.
Related Breeds
Flat-Coated Retriever
Sibling breed
Golden Retriever
Sibling breed
Chesapeake Bay Retriever
Cousin breed
Newfoundland
Cousin breed
Rottweiler
1 related breed
Rottweiler
Originally used for driving cattle and protecting valuable convoys, Rottweilers are now popular family pets as well as guard, police and military dogs.
Related Breeds
Great Dane
Cousin breed

Some images and text courtesy of the AKC, used with permission.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Cara’s family.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Cara’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Cara’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Cara’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Cara’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Cara find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit

Through Cara’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace her mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that her ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

B1

Haplotype

B1c

B1

Cara’s Haplogroup

B1 is the second most common maternal lineage in breeds of European or American origin. It is the female line of the majority of Golden Retrievers, Basset Hounds, and Shih Tzus, and about half of Beagles, Pekingese and Toy Poodles. This lineage is also somewhat common among village dogs that carry distinct ancestry from these breeds. We know this is a result of B1 dogs being common amongst the European dogs that their conquering owners brought around the world, because nowhere on earth is it a very common lineage in village dogs. It even enables us to trace the path of (human) colonization: Because most Bichons are B1 and Bichons are popular in Spanish culture, B1 is now fairly common among village dogs in Latin America.

B1c

Cara’s Haplotype

Part of the large B1 haplogroup, we have detected this haplotype in Mexico and Lebanon village dogs. Among the 12 breeds that we have spotted this haplotype in, it occurs most frequently in Border Collies, Australian Shepherd Dogs, and West Highland white Terriers.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

The B1 haplogroup can be found in village dogs like the Peruvian Village Dog, pictured above.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Cara’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Cara.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Cara’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Cara’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Cara find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit

There are no deep ancestral lineage results for Cara on her father’s side.

Unlike recent ancestry ("What breeds are in my dog?"), the deep ancestral lineage traces the migration of a dog’s male relatives back in time to the very dawn of dogs.

Male ancestral lineage is passed down father-to-son on the Y sex chromosome. Since female dogs receive two X sex chromosomes and no Y chromosome, their male heritage line is not visible as they have no Y chromosome.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Cara’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Cara.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Cara’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Cara’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Cara’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Cara find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit
 

Traits report  BETA

Coat Color

A number of genetic loci are known to affect coat color in dogs, and they all interact. In some cases, other genetic effects may also influence color and pattern.

Some other Embark dogs with this Coat Color genotype:

E Locus (Mask/Grizzle/Red)
EmE
Chromosome 5

Controls the characteristic melanistic mask seen in the German Shepherd and Pug as well as the grizzled "widow's peak" of the Afghan and Borzoi. Melanistic mask (Em) is dominant to grizzle (Eg) which is dominant to black (E) and red (e). Dogs that are EE or Ee are able to produce normal black pigment, but its distribution will be dependent on the genotypes at the K and A Loci. Dogs that are ee will be a shade of red or cream regardless of their genotype at K and A. The shade of red, which can range from a deep copper like the Irish Setter to the near-white of some Golden Retrievers, is dependent on other genetic factors including the Intensity (I) Locus, which has yet to be genetically mapped.

Want to help us map I Locus? If you haven't already, complete your ee pup's Embark profile with a photo! Remember, a picture is worth a thousand words!

Citations: Schmutz et al 2003 , Dreger and Schmutz 2010 ,

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/masks.html

K Locus (Dominant Black)
kyky
Chromosome 16

Causes a dominant black coat. Dogs with a dominant KB allele have black coats regardless of their genotype at the A locus; the coat color of dogs homozygous for the recessive ky allele are controlled by A locus. Alleles: KB > ky

Citations: Candille et al 2007

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/black.htm

A Locus (Agouti)
ayat
Chromosome 24

Determines whether hair pigment is produced in a banded red and black pattern or solid black. Fawn or sable (ay) is dominant to wolf sable (aw) which is dominant to black-and-tan (at), which is in turn dominant to recessive black (a).

Citations: Berryere et al 2005 , Dreger and Schmutz 2011 ,

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/tan.html

D Locus (Dilute)
DD
Chromosome 25

Lightens a black coat to blue and a red coat to buff. A dilute phenotype requires two copies of the recessive d allele.

Citations: Drogemuller et al 2007

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/dilutes.html

B Locus (Brown/Chocolate/Liver)
BB
Chromosome 11

Lightens a black coat to brown, chocolate or liver. The brown phenotype requires two copies of the recessive b allele. Red or cream dogs that carry two b alleles remain red or cream but have brown noses and footpads.

Citations: Schmutz et al 2002

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/liver.html

Other Coat Traits

Furnishings, shedding and curls are all genetic! And they all interact, too. In fact, the combination of these genetic loci explain the coat phenotypes of 90% of AKC registered dog breeds.

For more information on the genetics of coat types you can refer to https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897713/figure/F3/

Some other Embark dogs with this Coat Traits genotype:

Furnishings / Improper Coat (RSPO2)
II
Chromosome 13

Confers the distinguished moustache, beard, and eyebrows characteristic of breeds like the Schnauzer, Scottish Terrier, and Wire Haired Dachshund; only one copy of the dominant F allele is required for furnishings. The FI genotype is furnished but is an improper coat carrier. A dog with two I alleles has improper coat. The mutation is a 167-bp insertion which we measure indirectly using linked markers highly correlated with the insertion.

Citations: Cadieu et al 2010

Long Haircoat (FGF5)
GG
Chromosome 32

Confers a long, silky haircoat as observed in the Yorkshire Terrier and the Long Haired Whippet. The "T" allele is associated with longer hair.

Citations: Housley & Venta 2006 , Cadieu et al 2010

Shedding (MC5R)
TT
Chromosome 1

Affects shedding propensity in non-wire-haired dogs. Dogs with the ancestral C allele, like many Labradors and German Shepherd Dogs, are heavy or seasonal shedders, while those with one or more T allele, including many Boxers, Shih Tzus and Chihuahuas, tend to be low shedders. Dogs with furnished/wire-haired coats tend to be low shedders regardless of their MC5R genotype.

Citations: Hayward et al 2016

Curly Coat (KRT71)
CC
Chromosome 27

Causes the curly coat characteristic of Poodles and Bichons Frises. Dogs need at least one copy of the "T" allele to have a curly coat.

Citations: Cadieu et al 2010

Other Body Features

Brachycephaly (BMP3)
CC
Chromosome 32

Affects skull size and shape. Many brachycephalic or "smushed face” breeds such as the English Bulldog, Pug, and Pekingese have two copies of the derived A allele. Mesocephalic (Staffordshire Terrier, Labrador) and dolichocephalic (Whippet, Collie) dogs have one, or more commonly two, copies of the ancestral C allele. At least five different genes affect snout length in dogs, with BMP3 being the only one with a known causal mutation. For example, the skull shape of some breeds, including the dolichocephalic Scottish Terrier or the brachycephalic Japanese Chin, appear to be caused by other genes.

Citations: Schoenbeck et al 2012

Natural Bobtail (T)
CC
Chromosome 1

Whereas most dogs have two C alleles and a long tail, dogs with one G allele are likely to have a bobtail, which is an unusually short or absent tail. This mutation causes natural bobtail in many breeds including the Pembroke Welsh Corgi, the Australian Shepherd, and the Brittany Spaniel. Dogs with GG genotypes have not been observed, suggesting that the GG genotype results in embryonic lethality.

Please note that this mutation does not explain every natural bobtail! While certain lineages of Boston Terrier, English Bulldog, Rottweiler, Miniature Schnauzer, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, and Parson Russell Terrier, and Dobermans are born with a natural bobtail, these breeds do not have this mutation. This suggests that other unknown genetic mutations can also lead to a natural bobtail. If your dog does not have a CG genotype but was born with a bobtail, please email us at howdy@embarkvet.com!

Citations: Haworth et al 2001 , Hytonen et al 2009

Hind Dewclaws (LMBR1)
CC
Chromosome 16

Common in certain breeds, hind dewclaws are extra, nonfunctional digits located midway between your dog's paw and hock. Dogs with at least one copy of the T allele have about a 50% of chance of having hind dewclaws.

Citations: Park et al 2008

Body Size

Body size is a complex trait that is affected by both genetic and environmental variation. Our genetic analysis includes genes that, together, explain over 80% of the variation in dog body size. It does not account for runting or stunting; nor does it account for the interactions between various genes both known and unknown.

Some other Embark dogs with this Body Size genotype:

Body Size - IGF1
NN
Chromosome 15

The "I" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Sutter et al 2007

Body Size - IGF1R
GG
Chromosome 3

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Hoopes et al 2012

Body Size - STC2
TT
Chromosome 4

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Body Size - GHR (E195K)
GG
Chromosome 4

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Body Size - GHR (P177L)
CC
Chromosome 4

The "T" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Performance

Altitude Adaptation (EPAS1)
GG
Chromosome 10

Confers hypoxia tolerance. Dogs with at least one A allele are more tolerant of high altitude environments. This mutation was originally identified in breeds from high altitude areas such as the Tibetan Mastiff.

Citations: Gou et al 2014

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Cara’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Cara.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Cara’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Cara’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Cara’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Cara find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit

Summary

0
AT RISK
0
CARRIER
159
CLEAR
Tap above or scroll down to see more

Clinical traits

These genetic traits are valuable to your veterinarian and can inform the clinical decisions and diagnoses they make.

Alanine Aminotransferase Activity result: Normal
Known to be highly expressed in liver cells, activity levels of alanine aminotransferase, or ALT, is a common value on most blood chemistry panels and is known to be a se…
Cara has two normal alleles at ALT.

Not At Risk

Good news! Cara did not test positive for any of the genetic diseases that Embark screens for. Read on to learn more about the conditions we test for, but rest assured that Cara does not have the mutations known to cause them.

It is still important to let your veterinarian know these results because they could help guide Cara’s diagnosis and treatment if she gets sick in the future. Many other diseases caused by environmental factors or undiscovered genetic variants can cause symptoms similar to diseases we test for. By ruling out these mutations, your veterinarian will be able to find the true cause more quickly. Your veterinarian will also know they can safely prescribe medications some dogs are sensitive to.

Not A Carrier

Good news! Cara is not a carrier for any of the genetic diseases that Embark tests for.

Common conditions

Good news! Cara tested clear for 20 genetic conditions that are common in her breed mix.
Condition List

Multidrug Sensitivity
(MDR1)
Clinical

Sensitivity to certain classes of drugs, notably the parasiticide ivermectin, as well as certain gastroprotectant and anti-cancer medications, occurs in dogs with mutatio…

Seen in Labrador Retrievers, Rottweilers, but not Cara.

Canine Elliptocytosis
(SPTB Exon 30)
Blood

A largely benign disease of red blood cell shape, elliptocytosis rarely causes symptoms. Upon examinatino of a blood smear, however, affected dogs have elongated, oval or…

Seen in Labrador Retrievers, but not Cara.

Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency
(PKLR Exon 7 Labrador Variant)
Blood

This is a disease of red blood cells characterized by low energy level, jaundiced skin, and pale and cool extremities. Dogs affected with PKD have red blood cells that ha…

Seen in Labrador Retrievers, but not Cara.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)
Progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD Exon 1)
Eyes

This retinal disease causes progressive, nonpainful vision loss. The retina contains the cells, photoreceptors, that collect information about light: that is, they are th…

Seen in Labrador Retrievers, but not Cara.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)
Golden Retriever PRA 2 (TTC8)
Eyes

This retinal disease causes progressive, nonpainful vision loss. The retina contains the cells, photoreceptors, that collect information about light: that is, they are th…

Seen in Labrador Retrievers, but not Cara.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)
Cone-rod dystrophy 1, crd1 (PDE6B)
Eyes

This retinal disease causes progressive, nonpainful vision loss. The retina contains the cells, photoreceptors, that collect information about light: that is, they are th…

Seen in Staffordshire Terriers, but not Cara.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)
Cone-rod dystrophy 2, crd2 (IQCB1)
Eyes

This retinal disease causes progressive, nonpainful vision loss. The retina contains the cells, photoreceptors, that collect information about light: that is, they are th…

Seen in Staffordshire Terriers, but not Cara.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)
Cone-rod dystrophy, crd4/cord1 (RPGRIP1)
Eyes

This retinal disease causes progressive, nonpainful vision loss. The retina contains the cells, photoreceptors, that collect information about light: that is, they are th…

Seen in Labrador Retrievers, but not Cara.

Hereditary Cataracts, Early-Onset Cataracts, Juvenile Cataracts
(HSF4 Exon 9 Boston Terrier Variant)
Eyes

One of the leading causes of blindness in dogs (and humans!), cataracts are a progressive disease of the lens that causes functional blindness, but can be surgically corr…

Seen in Staffordshire Terriers, but not Cara.

Hyperuricosuria and Hyperuricemia or Urolithiasis
(SLC2A9)
Kidney and Bladder

This condition causes kidney and bladder stones composed of urate; if caught early, it is responsive to dietary management. Uric acid is an intermediate of purine metabol…

Seen in Staffordshire Terriers, Labrador Retrievers, but not Cara.

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis 1
(ARSG Exon 2)
Multisystem

This form of lysosomal storage disease can cause juvenile to adult-onset neurologic signs, depending on the affected gene. While lipofuscin is commonly observed in the ti…

Seen in Staffordshire Terriers, but not Cara.

Degenerative Myelopathy
(SOD1A)
Brain and Spinal Cord

A disease of mature dogs, this is a progressive degenerative disorder of the spinal cord that can cause muscle wasting and gait abnormalities. Affected dogs do not usuall…

Seen in Staffordshire Terriers, Labrador Retrievers, Rottweilers, but not Cara.

Narcolepsy
(HCRTR2 Intron 6)
Brain and Spinal Cord

A neurologic condition characterized by daytime sleepiness and fragmented sleep cycles, affected dogs also exhibit episodes of cataplexy, a sudden complete loss of muscle…

Seen in Labrador Retrievers, but not Cara.

Centronuclear Myopathy
(PTPLA)
Muscular

This muscle disorder is characterized by exercise intolerance, weight loss, and muscle wasting. While abnormal tendon reflexes can be observed as early as one month, the …

Seen in Labrador Retrievers, but not Cara.

Exercise-Induced Collapse
(DNM1)
Muscular

First characterized in field-trial lines of Labrador Retriever dogs, this muscle disorder can cause episodes of muscle weakness and sometimes collapse; after recovering, …

Seen in Labrador Retrievers, but not Cara.

Myotubular Myopathy 1, X-linked Myotubular Myopathy
(MTM1)
Muscular

This is a degenerative muscle disease first characterized in the Labrador Retriever. Affected dogs present as puppies with failure to thrive and weakness; this rapidly pr…

Seen in Labrador Retrievers, but not Cara.

Imerslund-Grasbeck Syndrome, Selective Cobalamin Malabsorption
(CUBN Exon 8)
Gastro-intestinal

This is a treatable gastrointestinal disease where dogs cannot absorb cobalamin, often causing them to be runty with poor energy levels. Cobalamin is required for synthes…

Seen in Staffordshire Terriers, but not Cara.

Hereditary Nasal Parakeratosis
(SUV39H2)
Skin

This condition causes the skin of the nose to be overly thick and shingle-like, which can be uncomfortable for your dog. HNPK isn't usually as upsetting to the dog as it …

Seen in Labrador Retrievers, but not Cara.

Oculoskeletal Dysplasia 1, Dwarfism-Retinal Dysplasia 1
(COL9A3)
Skeletal

A developmental disease described in the Labrador Retriever, affected dogs can show signs very early in life and can include dramatic short-limbed dwarfism, lameness, and…

Seen in Labrador Retrievers, but not Cara.

Skeletal Dysplasia 2
(COL11A2)
Skeletal

A disease of skeletal development, this causes dogs to have abnormally short legs but similar body lengths compared to unaffected dogs, and can be observed by the time do…

Seen in Labrador Retrievers, but not Cara.

Other Conditions: Clear of 139

Cara is clear of 139 other genetic diseases that Embark tests for.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Cara’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Cara.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Cara’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Cara’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Cara’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Cara find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit