What is Embark?

Charlie

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See what’s hidden in the pages of Charlie’s DNA story. You can learn about the breeds that make Charlie who he is, his genetic family tree, and even go back in time to see where his ancestors came from.

“Charlie is the best babysitting dog in the world”

Genetic Stats

Wolfiness: 1.4 % MEDIUM Help
Predicted Adult Weight: 34 lbs Help
Genetic Age: 41 human years Help

Embark family

Explore other Embark dogs that have one or more breed percentages that are similar to Charlie

Breed Mix By Chromosome

Our advanced test identifies from where Charlie inherited every part of the chromosome pairs in his genome.

Family tree

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Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Charlie’s family.

Breed Families

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Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Charlie.

Maternal Line

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Through the DNA inherited from Charlie’s mother we can trace his ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Charlie’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

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The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Charlie’s DNA includes a story of where his father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Charlie’s owner and make sure he is reunited with his family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

Contact us

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Charlie find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit
 
Large screen pedigre From Embark PARENTS GRANDPARENTS GREAT GRANDPARENTS Beagle Coonhound mix Beagle Beagle Beagle mix Coonhound Beagle Beagle Beagle Beagle Beagle Beagle mix Coonhound Coonhound
Explore by tapping your dog’s parents and grand parents.

Breed Families

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Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Charlie.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Charlie’s mother we can trace his ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Charlie’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Charlie’s DNA includes a story of where his father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Charlie’s owner and make sure he is reunited with his family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

Contact us

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Charlie find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit
DNA shows us the unique path to each of today’s recognized breeds by exposing the relatedness between them.
Beagle
4 related breeds
Beagle
The Beagle is a scent hound and a great family pet. They are known for being affectionate and having loud voices.
Related Breeds
Harrier
Sibling breed
Bloodhound
Sibling breed
Otterhound
Cousin breed
Basset Hound
Cousin breed

Some images and text courtesy of the AKC, used with permission.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Charlie’s family.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Charlie’s mother we can trace his ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Charlie’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Charlie’s DNA includes a story of where his father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Charlie’s owner and make sure he is reunited with his family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

Contact us

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Charlie find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit

Through Charlie’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace his mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

B1

Haplotype

B54

B1

Charlie’s Haplogroup

B1 is the second most common maternal lineage in breeds of European or American origin. It is the female line of the majority of Golden Retrievers, Basset Hounds, and Shih Tzus, and about half of Beagles, Pekingese and Toy Poodles. This lineage is also somewhat common among village dogs that carry distinct ancestry from these breeds. We know this is a result of B1 dogs being common amongst the European dogs that their conquering owners brought around the world, because nowhere on earth is it a very common lineage in village dogs. It even enables us to trace the path of (human) colonization: Because most Bichons are B1 and Bichons are popular in Spanish culture, B1 is now fairly common among village dogs in Latin America.

B54

Charlie’s Haplotype

Part of the large B1 haplogroup, this haplotype occurs most commonly in Basset Hounds, West Highland White Terriers, and village dogs in Namibia.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

The B1 haplogroup can be found in village dogs like the Peruvian Village Dog, pictured above.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Charlie’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Charlie.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Charlie’s DNA includes a story of where his father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Charlie’s owner and make sure he is reunited with his family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

Contact us

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Charlie find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit

Through Charlie’s Y-chromosome we can trace his father’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

D

Haplotype

H7

D

Charlie’s Haplogroup

The D paternal lineage is very common in well-known populations of dogs. Breeds belonging to the D lineage likely have direct male ancestors that can be traced all the way back to the origin of domestic dogs themselves! One popular breed that commonly sports a D lineage is the Boxer. Boxers were developed in the late 19th century from Mastiff dogs, so it is no surprise that D is well represented among Mastiffs, Bulldogs, as well as Terriers. Intriguingly, D is also found among Lhasa Apsos, an ancient Tibetan breed, and Afghan Hounds. While the presence of this lineage in Polynesia or the New World can be chalked up to interbreeding with European dogs brought during voyages of discovery or later settlement, D is also well represented among village dog populations in the Middle East and Africa. If the fact that we find dogs bearing a D lineage in the Middle East (not to mention the large amount of diversity among Middle Eastern D lineage males) is any indication of ancient residence in that region, then the presence among Oceanian village dogs is peculiar. Rather, it may be that D is part of a broader Eurasian group of ancient paternal lineages which disappeared from the eastern portion of its original range, persisting in the island of New Guinea as well as West Asia and Africa. With the rise of Mastiff breeds, the D lineage received a new life as it became common among many types of working dogs.

H7

Charlie’s Haplotype

Part of the D haplogroup, this common haplotype has been found in French Bulldogs, Afghan Hounds, Bull Terriers, and village dogs spanning from South America to Africa and into the South Pacific.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

The D paternal lineage is common in Boxers.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Charlie’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Charlie.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Charlie’s mother we can trace his ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Charlie’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Charlie’s owner and make sure he is reunited with his family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

Contact us

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Charlie find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit
 

Traits report  BETA

Coat Color

A number of genetic loci are known to affect coat color in dogs, and they all interact. In some cases, other genetic effects may also influence color and pattern.

Some other Embark dogs with this Coat Color genotype:

E Locus (Mask/Grizzle/Red)
EE or Ee or ee
Chromosome 5

Controls the characteristic melanistic mask seen in the German Shepherd and Pug as well as the grizzled "widow's peak" of the Afghan and Borzoi. Melanistic mask (Em) is dominant to grizzle (Eg) which is dominant to black (E) and red (e).

Citations: Schmutz et al 2003 , Dreger and Schmutz 2010 ,

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/masks.html

K Locus (Dominant Black)
kyky
Chromosome 16

Causes a dominant black coat. Dogs with a dominant KB allele have black coats regardless of their genotype at the A locus; the coat color of dogs homozygous for the recessive ky allele are controlled by A locus. Alleles: KB > ky

Citations: Candille et al 2007

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/black.htm

A Locus (Agouti)
aa or ata or atat
Chromosome 24

Determines whether hair pigment is produced in a banded red and black pattern or solid black. Fawn or sable (ay) is dominant to wolf sable (aw) which is dominant to black-and-tan (at), which is in turn dominant to recessive black (a).

Citations: Berryere et al 2005 , Dreger and Schmutz 2011 ,

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/tan.html

D Locus (Dilute)
DD
Chromosome 25

Lightens a black coat to blue and a red coat to buff. A dilute phenotype requires two copies of the recessive d allele.

Citations: Drogemuller et al 2007

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/dilutes.html

B Locus (Brown/Chocolate/Liver)
BB
Chromosome 11

Lightens a black coat to brown, chocolate or liver. The brown phenotype requires two copies of the recessive b allele. Red or cream dogs that carry two b alleles remain red or cream but have brown noses and footpads.

Citations: Schmutz et al 2002

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/liver.html

Other Coat Traits

Furnishings, shedding and curls are all genetic! And they all interact, too. In fact, the combination of these genetic loci explain the coat phenotypes of 90% of AKC registered dog breeds.

For more information on the genetics of coat types you can refer to https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897713/figure/F3/

Some other Embark dogs with this Coat Traits genotype:

Long Haircoat (FGF5)
GG
Chromosome 32

Confers a long, silky haircoat as observed in the Yorkshire Terrier and the Long Haired Whippet. The "T" allele is associated with longer hair.

Citations: Housley & Venta 2006 , Cadieu et al 2010

Shedding (MC5R)
CC
Chromosome 1

Affects shedding propensity in non-wire-haired dogs. Dogs with the ancestral C allele, like many Labradors and German Shepherd Dogs, are heavy or seasonal shedders, while those with one or more T allele, including many Boxers, Shih Tzus and Chihuahuas, tend to be low shedders. Dogs with furnished/wire-haired coats tend to be low shedders regardless of their MC5R genotype.

Citations: Hayward et al 2016

Curly Coat (KRT71)
CC
Chromosome 27

Causes the curly coat characteristic of Poodles and Bichons Frises. Dogs need at least one copy of the "T" allele to have a curly coat.

Citations: Cadieu et al 2010

Other Body Features

Brachycephaly (BMP3)
CC
Chromosome 32

Affects skull size and shape. Many brachycephalic or "smushed face” breeds such as the English Bulldog, Pug, and Pekingese have two copies of the derived A allele. Mesocephalic (Staffordshire Terrier, Labrador) and dolichocephalic (Whippet, Collie) dogs have one, or more commonly two, copies of the ancestral C allele. At least five different genes affect snout length in dogs, with BMP3 being the only one with a known causal mutation. For example, the skull shape of some breeds, including the dolichocephalic Scottish Terrier or the brachycephalic Japanese Chin, appear to be caused by other genes.

Citations: Schoenbeck et al 2012

Hind Dewclaws (LMBR1)
CC
Chromosome 16

Common in certain breeds, hind dewclaws are extra, nonfunctional digits located midway between your dog's paw and hock. Dogs with at least one copy of the T allele have about a 50% of chance of having hind dewclaws.

Citations: Park et al 2008

Body Size

Body size is a complex trait that is affected by both genetic and environmental variation. Our genetic analysis includes genes that, together, explain over 80% of the variation in dog body size. It does not account for runting or stunting; nor does it account for the interactions between various genes both known and unknown.

Some other Embark dogs with this Body Size genotype:

IGF1
II
Chromosome 15

The "I" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Sutter et al 2007

IGF1R
GA
Chromosome 3

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Hoopes et al 2012

STC2
TT
Chromosome 4

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

GHR (E195K)
GG
Chromosome 4

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

GHR (P177L)
CC
Chromosome 4

The "T" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Performance

Altitude Adaptation (EPAS1)
GG
Chromosome 10

Confers hypoxia tolerance. Dogs with at least one A allele are more tolerant of high altitude environments. This mutation was originally identified in breeds from high altitude areas such as the Tibetan Mastiff.

Citations: Gou et al 2014

Genetic Diversity

Inbreeding is a meaure of how closely related your dog’s parents were. The higher the inbreeding coefficient, the more closely related the parents. In general, higher inbreeding coefficients are associated with increased incidence of genetically inherited conditions.

Diversity of the maternal and paternal haplotypes in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region of the genome has been found in some studies to be associated with the incidence of certain autoimmune diseases. Dogs that have less diversity in the MHC region haplotypes—i.e. the Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) inherited from the mother is similar to the DLA inherited from the father—are considered less immunologically diverse. A High Diversity result means the dog has two highly dissimilar haplotypes. A Low Diversity result means the dog has two similar but not identical haplotypes. A No Diversity result means the dog has inherited identical haplotypes from both parents.

Inbreeding Coefficient
8%

Measures the proportion of the genome where the genes on the mother’s side are identical by descent to those on the father’s side.

This chart shows how common various inbreeding levels are in different groups of dogs. At the left are dogs with 0% inbreeding, i.e. completely outbred. As you look right, the amount of inbreeding increases. The height of the line shows how many dogs have that amount of inbreeding. The arrow shows where Charlie fits into this picture.
MHC Class II - DLA DRB1
No Diversity
Chromosome 12

A Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) gene, DRB1 encodes a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein involved in the immune response. Some studies have shown associations between certain DRB1 haplotypes and autoimmune diseases such as Cushing's disease, but these findings have yet to be scientifically validated.

How common is this amount of diversity in mixed breed dogs?

Citations: Angles et al 2005

MHC Class II - DLA DQA1 and DQB1
No Diversity
Chromosome 12

DQA1 and DQB1 are two tightly linked DLA genes that code for MHC proteins involved in the immune response. A number of studies have shown correlations of DQA-DQB1 haplotypes and certain autoimmune diseases; however, these have not yet been scientifically validated.

How common is this amount of diversity in mixed breed dogs?

Citations: Angles et al 2005

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Charlie’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Charlie.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Charlie’s mother we can trace his ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Charlie’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Charlie’s owner and make sure he is reunited with his family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

Contact us

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Charlie find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit