What is Embark?

Penny

See what’s hidden in the pages of Penny’s DNA story. You can learn about the breeds that make Penny who she is, her genetic family tree, and even go back in time to see where her ancestors came from.

Genetic Stats

Wolfiness: 1.1 % MEDIUM Help
Predicted Adult Weight: 15 lbs Help
Genetic Age: 43 human years Help

Embark family

Explore other Embark dogs that have one or more breed percentages that are similar to Penny

Breed Mix By Chromosome

Our advanced test identifies from where Penny inherited every part of the chromosome pairs in her genome. Each chromosome section is colored to represent the breed that it comes from.

Family tree

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Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Penny’s family.

Breed Families

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Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Penny.

Maternal Line

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Through the DNA inherited from Penny’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Penny’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

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The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Penny’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Penny’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Penny find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit
Explore by tapping your dog’s parents and grand parents.

Our algorithms predict this is the most likely family tree to explain Penny’s breed mix, but this family tree may not be the only possible one.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Penny.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Penny’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Penny’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Penny’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Penny’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Penny find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit
DNA shows us the unique path to each of today’s recognized breeds by exposing the relatedness between them.
Russell-type Terrier
2 related breeds
Russell-type Terrier
These small, energetic terriers, developed in 19th century England for hunting small game, are now some of the best agility dogs around.
Related Breeds
Wire Fox Terrier
Sibling breed
Rat Terrier
Cousin breed
Pomeranian
1 related breed
Pomeranian
The Pomeranian is a cocky, animated companion with an extroverted personality.
Related Breeds
American Eskimo Dog
Cousin breed
Miniature Pinscher
1 related breed
Miniature Pinscher
The Miniature Pinscher is a small breed of dog originating from Germany. The breed's earliest ancestors may have included the German Pinscher mixed with Italian greyhounds and dachshunds.
Related Breeds
German Pinscher
Sibling breed
Pekingese
5 related breeds
Pekingese
Pekingese were dogs bred for centuries to be the cherished companions of the imperial family of China. Today they are still cherished family companions and show dogs who greet everyone they meet with dignity and grace.
Related Breeds
Shih Tzu
Sibling breed
Tibetan Spaniel
Cousin breed
Lhasa Apso
Cousin breed
Chinese Crested
Cousin breed
Chihuahua
Cousin breed

Some images and text courtesy of the AKC, used with permission.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Penny’s family.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Penny’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Penny’s family has traveled.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Penny’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Penny’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Penny find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit

Through Penny’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace her mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that her ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

B1

Haplotype

B42

B1

Penny’s Haplogroup

B1 is the second most common maternal lineage in breeds of European or American origin. It is the female line of the majority of Golden Retrievers, Basset Hounds, and Shih Tzus, and about half of Beagles, Pekingese and Toy Poodles. This lineage is also somewhat common among village dogs that carry distinct ancestry from these breeds. We know this is a result of B1 dogs being common amongst the European dogs that their conquering owners brought around the world, because nowhere on earth is it a very common lineage in village dogs. It even enables us to trace the path of (human) colonization: Because most Bichons are B1 and Bichons are popular in Spanish culture, B1 is now fairly common among village dogs in Latin America.

B42

Penny’s Haplotype

Part of the large B1 haplogroup, this haplotype occurs most commonly in Maltese, Bichon Frises, and village dogs in Java, Peru, and Costa Rica.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

The B1 haplogroup can be found in village dogs like the Peruvian Village Dog, pictured above.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Penny’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Penny.

Paternal Line

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Penny’s DNA includes a story of where her father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Penny’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Penny find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit

There are no deep ancestral lineage results for Penny on her father’s side.

Unlike recent ancestry ("What breeds are in my dog?"), the deep ancestral lineage traces the migration of a dog’s male relatives back in time to the very dawn of dogs.

Male ancestral lineage is passed down father-to-son on the Y sex chromosome. Since female dogs receive two X sex chromosomes and no Y chromosome, their male heritage line is not visible as they have no Y chromosome.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Penny’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Penny.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Penny’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Penny’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Penny’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Penny find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit
 

Traits report  BETA

Coat Color

A number of genetic loci are known to affect coat color in dogs, and they all interact. In some cases, other genetic effects may also influence color and pattern.

Some other Embark dogs with this Coat Color genotype:

E Locus (Mask/Grizzle/Red)
EmE or Eme
Chromosome 5

Controls the characteristic melanistic mask seen in the German Shepherd and Pug as well as the grizzled "widow's peak" of the Afghan and Borzoi. Melanistic mask (Em) is dominant to grizzle (Eg) which is dominant to black (E) and red (e). Dogs that are EE or Ee are able to produce normal black pigment, but its distribution will be dependent on the genotypes at the K and A Loci. Dogs that are ee will be a shade of red or cream regardless of their genotype at K and A. The shade of red, which can range from a deep copper like the Irish Setter to the near-white of some Golden Retrievers, is dependent on other genetic factors including the Intensity (I) Locus, which has yet to be genetically mapped.

Want to help us map I Locus? If you haven't already, complete your ee pup's Embark profile with a photo! Remember, a picture is worth a thousand words!

Citations: Schmutz et al 2003 , Dreger and Schmutz 2010 ,

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/masks.html

K Locus (Dominant Black)
kyky
Chromosome 16

Causes a dominant black coat. Dogs with a dominant KB allele have black coats regardless of their genotype at the A locus; the coat color of dogs homozygous for the recessive ky allele are controlled by A locus. Alleles: KB > ky

Citations: Candille et al 2007

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/black.htm

A Locus (Agouti)
aya or ayat
Chromosome 24

Determines whether hair pigment is produced in a banded red and black pattern or solid black. Fawn or sable (ay) is dominant to wolf sable (aw) which is dominant to black-and-tan (at), which is in turn dominant to recessive black (a).

Citations: Berryere et al 2005 , Dreger and Schmutz 2011 ,

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/tan.html

D Locus (Dilute)
DD
Chromosome 25

Lightens a black coat to blue and a red coat to buff. A dilute phenotype requires two copies of the recessive d allele.

Citations: Drogemuller et al 2007

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/dilutes.html

B Locus (Brown/Chocolate/Liver)
BB
Chromosome 11

Lightens a black coat to brown, chocolate or liver. The brown phenotype requires two copies of the recessive b allele. Red or cream dogs that carry two b alleles remain red or cream but have brown noses and footpads.

Citations: Schmutz et al 2002

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/liver.html

Other Coat Traits

Furnishings, shedding and curls are all genetic! And they all interact, too. In fact, the combination of these genetic loci explain the coat phenotypes of 90% of AKC registered dog breeds.

For more information on the genetics of coat types you can refer to https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897713/figure/F3/

Some other Embark dogs with this Coat Traits genotype:

Long Haircoat (FGF5)
GG
Chromosome 32

Confers a long, silky haircoat as observed in the Yorkshire Terrier and the Long Haired Whippet. The "T" allele is associated with longer hair.

Citations: Housley & Venta 2006 , Cadieu et al 2010

Shedding (MC5R)
CT
Chromosome 1

Affects shedding propensity in non-wire-haired dogs. Dogs with the ancestral C allele, like many Labradors and German Shepherd Dogs, are heavy or seasonal shedders, while those with one or more T allele, including many Boxers, Shih Tzus and Chihuahuas, tend to be low shedders. Dogs with furnished/wire-haired coats tend to be low shedders regardless of their MC5R genotype.

Citations: Hayward et al 2016

Curly Coat (KRT71)
CC
Chromosome 27

Causes the curly coat characteristic of Poodles and Bichons Frises. Dogs need at least one copy of the "T" allele to have a curly coat.

Citations: Cadieu et al 2010

Other Body Features

Brachycephaly (BMP3)
CC
Chromosome 32

Affects skull size and shape. Many brachycephalic or "smushed face” breeds such as the English Bulldog, Pug, and Pekingese have two copies of the derived A allele. Mesocephalic (Staffordshire Terrier, Labrador) and dolichocephalic (Whippet, Collie) dogs have one, or more commonly two, copies of the ancestral C allele. At least five different genes affect snout length in dogs, with BMP3 being the only one with a known causal mutation. For example, the skull shape of some breeds, including the dolichocephalic Scottish Terrier or the brachycephalic Japanese Chin, appear to be caused by other genes.

Citations: Schoenbeck et al 2012

Hind Dewclaws (LMBR1)
CC
Chromosome 16

Common in certain breeds, hind dewclaws are extra, nonfunctional digits located midway between your dog's paw and hock. Dogs with at least one copy of the T allele have about a 50% of chance of having hind dewclaws.

Citations: Park et al 2008

Body Size

Body size is a complex trait that is affected by both genetic and environmental variation. Our genetic analysis includes genes that, together, explain over 80% of the variation in dog body size. It does not account for runting or stunting; nor does it account for the interactions between various genes both known and unknown.

Some other Embark dogs with this Body Size genotype:

Body Size - IGF1
II
Chromosome 15

The "I" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Sutter et al 2007

Body Size - IGF1R
GA
Chromosome 3

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Hoopes et al 2012

Body Size - STC2
TT
Chromosome 4

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Body Size - GHR (E195K)
AA
Chromosome 4

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Body Size - GHR (P177L)
CC
Chromosome 4

The "T" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Performance

Altitude Adaptation (EPAS1)
GG
Chromosome 10

Confers hypoxia tolerance. Dogs with at least one A allele are more tolerant of high altitude environments. This mutation was originally identified in breeds from high altitude areas such as the Tibetan Mastiff.

Citations: Gou et al 2014

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Penny’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Penny.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Penny’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Penny’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Penny’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Penny find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit

Summary

0
AT RISK
0
CARRIER
159
CLEAR
Tap above or scroll down to see more

Clinical traits

These genetic traits are valuable to your veterinarian and can inform the clinical decisions and diagnoses they make.

Alanine Aminotransferase Activity result: Low Normal
Known to be highly expressed in liver cells, activity levels of alanine aminotransferase, or ALT, is a common value on most blood chemistry panels and is known to be a se…
Penny has one copy of a mutation associated with reduced ALT activity as measured on veterinary blood chemistry panels. Please inform your veterinarian that Penny has thi…

Not At Risk

Good news! Penny did not test positive for any of the genetic diseases that Embark screens for. Read on to learn more about the conditions we test for, but rest assured that Penny does not have the mutations known to cause them.

It is still important to let your veterinarian know these results because they could help guide Penny’s diagnosis and treatment if she gets sick in the future. Many other diseases caused by environmental factors or undiscovered genetic variants can cause symptoms similar to diseases we test for. By ruling out these mutations, your veterinarian will be able to find the true cause more quickly. Your veterinarian will also know they can safely prescribe medications some dogs are sensitive to.

Not A Carrier

Good news! Penny is not a carrier for any of the genetic diseases that Embark tests for.

Common conditions

Good news! Penny tested clear for 10 genetic conditions that are common in her breed mix.
Condition List

Multidrug Sensitivity
(MDR1)
Clinical

Sensitivity to certain classes of drugs, notably the parasiticide ivermectin, as well as certain gastroprotectant and anti-cancer medications, occurs in dogs with mutatio…

Seen in Miniature Pinschers, Pekingeses, but not Penny.

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
(PRKDC)
Immune

As can be surmised from the name, this is a deficiency of multiple immune components: affected dogs require close monitoring for signs of infection, and should not be adm…

Seen in Russell-type Terriers, but not Penny.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)
Rod-cone dysplasia, rcd3 (PDE6A)
Eyes

This retinal disease causes progressive, nonpainful vision loss. The retina contains the cells, photoreceptors, that collect information about light: that is, they are th…

Seen in Pomeranians, but not Penny.

Primary Lens Luxation
(ADAMTS17)
Eyes

This surgically correctable condition causes the lens to spontaneously detach from its normal residence within the pupil, leading to reduced visual acuity and irritation …

Seen in Russell-type Terriers, but not Penny.

Cystinuria
Type II-B (SLC7A9)
Kidney and Bladder

A disease of cystine accumulation, affected dogs are prone to developing cystine kidney and bladder stones, which if caught early can be managed with dietary changes, inc…

Seen in Miniature Pinschers, but not Penny.

Hyperuricosuria and Hyperuricemia or Urolithiasis
(SLC2A9)
Kidney and Bladder

This condition causes kidney and bladder stones composed of urate; if caught early, it is responsive to dietary management. Uric acid is an intermediate of purine metabol…

Seen in Russell-type Terriers, Pomeranians, but not Penny.

Spinocerebellar Ataxia, Late-Onset Ataxia
(CAPN1)
Brain and Spinal Cord

Known as the most primordial part of the brain, the cerebellum fine tunes motor signals from the brain to the muscles, allowing for balance and coordination. Symptoms of …

Seen in Russell-type Terriers, but not Penny.

Spinocerebellar Ataxia with Myokymia and/or Seizures
(KCNJ10)
Brain and Spinal Cord

Known as the most primordial part of the brain, the cerebellum fine tunes motor signals from the brain to the muscles, allowing for balance and coordination. Symptoms of …

Seen in Russell-type Terriers, but not Penny.

Dilated Cardiomyopathy
(PDK4)
Heart

The most common acquired heart disease of dogs, this is a progressive disease of the heart ventricles: early diagnosis and treatment is key. The ventricles are the heavil…

Seen in Russell-type Terriers, but not Penny.

Hereditary Vitamin D-Resistant Rickets
(VDR)
Skeletal

A disease of insufficient calcium absorption, this can cause lameness and skeletal abnormalities; however, if diagnosed early it can be successfully managed. Calcium abso…

Seen in Pomeranians, but not Penny.

Other Conditions: Clear of 149

Penny is clear of 149 other genetic diseases that Embark tests for.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Penny’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Penny.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Penny’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Penny’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Penny’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Penny find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit