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Skippy

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See what’s hidden in the pages of Skippy’s DNA story. You can learn about the breeds that make Skippy who she is, her genetic family tree, and even go back in time to see where her ancestors came from.

Genetic Stats

Wolfiness: 1.7 % HIGH Help
Predicted Adult Weight: 39 lbs Help
Genetic Age: 17 human years Help

Embark family

Explore other Embark dogs that have one or more breed percentages that are similar to Skippy

Breed Mix By Chromosome

Our advanced test identifies from where Skippy inherited every part of the chromosome pairs in her genome.

Family tree

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Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Skippy’s family.

Breed Families

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Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Skippy.

Maternal Line

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Through the DNA inherited from Skippy’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Skippy’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Skippy’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

Contact us

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Skippy find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

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Large screen pedigre From Embark PARENTS GRANDPARENTS GREAT GRANDPARENTS Staffordshire Terrier mix Mixed Staffordshire Terrier Staffordshire Terrier mix Cocker Spaniel mix Australian Shepherd / Boxer mix Staffordshire Terrier Staffordshire Terrier Staffordshire Terrier Staffordshire Terrier mix Cocker Spaniel Mixed Australian Shepherd Boxer mix
Explore by tapping your dog’s parents and grand parents.

Breed Families

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Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Skippy.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Skippy’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Skippy’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Skippy’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

Contact us

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Skippy find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit
DNA shows us the unique path to each of today’s recognized breeds by exposing the relatedness between them.
Staffordshire Terrier
7 related breeds
Staffordshire Terrier
Staffordshire Terriers, sometimes referred to as "pit bull" type, are intelligent and trainable dogs, but unfortunately can be labelled as an aggressive breed group.
Related Breeds
American Bulldog
Sibling breed
English Bulldog
Cousin breed
Bull Terrier
Sibling breed
Boston Terrier
Cousin breed
Boxer
Cousin breed
French Bulldog
Cousin breed
Dogue de Bordeaux
Cousin breed
Cocker Spaniel
4 related breeds
Cocker Spaniel
Cocker Spaniels are handsome and intelligent hunting dogs that are also well suited to life as a loving family pet.
Related Breeds
English Cocker Spaniel
Sibling breed
Sussex Spaniel
Cousin breed
English Springer Spaniel
Cousin breed
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
Cousin breed
Boxer
2 related breeds
Boxer
Developed in Germany, the Boxer is a popular family dognull-patient, loyal and smartnull-requiring lots of exercise and proper training.
Related Breeds
English Bulldog
Cousin breed
French Bulldog
Cousin breed

Some images and text courtesy of the AKC, used with permission.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Skippy’s family.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Skippy’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Skippy’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Skippy’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

Contact us

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Skippy find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit

Through Skippy’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace her mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that her ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

B1

Haplotype

B6/8/67

B1

Skippy’s Haplogroup

B1 is the second most common maternal lineage in breeds of European or American origin. It is the female line of the majority of Golden Retrievers, Basset Hounds, and Shih Tzus, and about half of Beagles, Pekingese and Toy Poodles. This lineage is also somewhat common among village dogs that carry distinct ancestry from these breeds. We know this is a result of B1 dogs being common amongst the European dogs that their conquering owners brought around the world, because nowhere on earth is it a very common lineage in village dogs. It even enables us to trace the path of (human) colonization: Because most Bichons are B1 and Bichons are popular in Spanish culture, B1 is now fairly common among village dogs in Latin America.

B6/8/67

Skippy’s Haplotype

Part of the large B1 haplogroup, this common haplotype occurs in village dogs from South America to the Middle East, all the way down to the French Polynesian Islands. Among the 12 breed dogs we have seen it in, it occurs most frequently among German Shepherd Dogs, English Springer Spaniels, and Havanese.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

The B1 haplogroup can be found in village dogs like the Peruvian Village Dog, pictured above.

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Skippy’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Skippy.

Let us know and we will contact Skippy’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

Contact us

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Skippy find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit
 

Traits report  BETA

Coat Color

A number of genetic loci are known to affect coat color in dogs, and they all interact. In some cases, other genetic effects may also influence color and pattern.

Some other Embark dogs with this Coat Color genotype:

E Locus (Mask/Grizzle/Red)
EmE or Eme
Chromosome 5

Controls the characteristic melanistic mask seen in the German Shepherd and Pug as well as the grizzled "widow's peak" of the Afghan and Borzoi. Melanistic mask (Em) is dominant to grizzle (Eg) which is dominant to black (E) and red (e).

Citations: Schmutz et al 2003 , Dreger and Schmutz 2010 ,

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/masks.html

K Locus (Dominant Black)
kyky
Chromosome 16

Causes a dominant black coat. Dogs with a dominant KB allele have black coats regardless of their genotype at the A locus; the coat color of dogs homozygous for the recessive ky allele are controlled by A locus. Alleles: KB > ky

Citations: Candille et al 2007

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/black.htm

A Locus (Agouti)
aa or ata or atat
Chromosome 24

Determines whether hair pigment is produced in a banded red and black pattern or solid black. Fawn or sable (ay) is dominant to wolf sable (aw) which is dominant to black-and-tan (at), which is in turn dominant to recessive black (a).

Citations: Berryere et al 2005 , Dreger and Schmutz 2011 ,

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/tan.html

D Locus (Dilute)
DD
Chromosome 25

Lightens a black coat to blue and a red coat to buff. A dilute phenotype requires two copies of the recessive d allele.

Citations: Drogemuller et al 2007

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/dilutes.html

B Locus (Brown/Chocolate/Liver)
Bb
Chromosome 11

Lightens a black coat to brown, chocolate or liver. The brown phenotype requires two copies of the recessive b allele. Red or cream dogs that carry two b alleles remain red or cream but have brown noses and footpads.

Citations: Schmutz et al 2002

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/liver.html

Other Coat Traits

Furnishings, shedding and curls are all genetic! And they all interact, too. In fact, the combination of these genetic loci explain the coat phenotypes of 90% of AKC registered dog breeds.

For more information on the genetics of coat types you can refer to https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897713/figure/F3/

Some other Embark dogs with this Coat Traits genotype:

Long Haircoat (FGF5)
GT
Chromosome 32

Confers a long, silky haircoat as observed in the Yorkshire Terrier and the Long Haired Whippet. The "T" allele is associated with longer hair.

Citations: Housley & Venta 2006 , Cadieu et al 2010

Shedding (MC5R)
CT
Chromosome 1

Affects shedding propensity in non-wire-haired dogs. Dogs with the ancestral C allele, like many Labradors and German Shepherd Dogs, are heavy or seasonal shedders, while those with one or more T allele, including many Boxers, Shih Tzus and Chihuahuas, tend to be low shedders. Dogs with furnished/wire-haired coats tend to be low shedders regardless of their MC5R genotype.

Citations: Hayward et al 2016

Curly Coat (KRT71)
CC
Chromosome 27

Causes the curly coat characteristic of Poodles and Bichons Frises. Dogs need at least one copy of the "T" allele to have a curly coat.

Citations: Cadieu et al 2010

Other Body Features

Brachycephaly (BMP3)
CC
Chromosome 32

Affects skull size and shape. Many brachycephalic or "smushed face” breeds such as the English Bulldog, Pug, and Pekingese have two copies of the derived A allele. Mesocephalic (Staffordshire Terrier, Labrador) and dolichocephalic (Whippet, Collie) dogs have one, or more commonly two, copies of the ancestral C allele. At least five different genes affect snout length in dogs, with BMP3 being the only one with a known causal mutation. For example, the skull shape of some breeds, including the dolichocephalic Scottish Terrier or the brachycephalic Japanese Chin, appear to be caused by other genes.

Citations: Schoenbeck et al 2012

Hind Dewclaws (LMBR1)
CC
Chromosome 16

Common in certain breeds, hind dewclaws are extra, nonfunctional digits located midway between your dog's paw and hock. Dogs with at least one copy of the T allele have about a 50% of chance of having hind dewclaws.

Citations: Park et al 2008

Body Size

Body size is a complex trait that is affected by both genetic and environmental variation. Our genetic analysis includes genes that, together, explain over 80% of the variation in dog body size. It does not account for runting or stunting; nor does it account for the interactions between various genes both known and unknown.

Some other Embark dogs with this Body Size genotype:

IGF1
II
Chromosome 15

The "I" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Sutter et al 2007

IGF1R
GG
Chromosome 3

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Hoopes et al 2012

STC2
TA
Chromosome 4

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

GHR (E195K)
GA
Chromosome 4

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

GHR (P177L)
CC
Chromosome 4

The "T" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Performance

Altitude Adaptation (EPAS1)
GG
Chromosome 10

Confers hypoxia tolerance. Dogs with at least one A allele are more tolerant of high altitude environments. This mutation was originally identified in breeds from high altitude areas such as the Tibetan Mastiff.

Citations: Gou et al 2014

Genetic Diversity

Inbreeding is a meaure of how closely related your dog’s parents were. The higher the inbreeding coefficient, the more closely related the parents. In general, higher inbreeding coefficients are associated with increased incidence of genetically inherited conditions.

Diversity of the maternal and paternal haplotypes in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region of the genome has been found in some studies to be associated with the incidence of certain autoimmune diseases. Dogs that have less diversity in the MHC region haplotypes—i.e. the Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) inherited from the mother is similar to the DLA inherited from the father—are considered less immunologically diverse. A High Diversity result means the dog has two highly dissimilar haplotypes. A Low Diversity result means the dog has two similar but not identical haplotypes. A No Diversity result means the dog has inherited identical haplotypes from both parents.

Inbreeding Coefficient
1%

Measures the proportion of the genome where the genes on the mother’s side are identical by descent to those on the father’s side.

This chart shows how common various inbreeding levels are in different groups of dogs. At the left are dogs with 0% inbreeding, i.e. completely outbred. As you look right, the amount of inbreeding increases. The height of the line shows how many dogs have that amount of inbreeding. The arrow shows where Skippy fits into this picture.
MHC Class II - DLA DRB1
High Diversity
Chromosome 12

A Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) gene, DRB1 encodes a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein involved in the immune response. Some studies have shown associations between certain DRB1 haplotypes and autoimmune diseases such as Cushing's disease, but these findings have yet to be scientifically validated.

How common is this amount of diversity in mixed breed dogs?

Citations: Angles et al 2005

MHC Class II - DLA DQA1 and DQB1
High Diversity
Chromosome 12

DQA1 and DQB1 are two tightly linked DLA genes that code for MHC proteins involved in the immune response. A number of studies have shown correlations of DQA-DQB1 haplotypes and certain autoimmune diseases; however, these have not yet been scientifically validated.

How common is this amount of diversity in mixed breed dogs?

Citations: Angles et al 2005

Family tree

>
Explore an interactive family tree and get a picture of Skippy’s family.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about the dog breeds related to the breeds found in Skippy.

Maternal Line

>
Through the DNA inherited from Skippy’s mother we can trace her ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Skippy’s family has traveled.

Let us know and we will contact Skippy’s owner and make sure she is reunited with her family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

Contact us

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Skippy find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Learn more Order kit