Primary Hyperoxaluria

Kidney and Bladder

Primary hyperoxaluria is caused by a mutation in the the AGXT genes. Loss of the enzyme product of AGXT, alanine-glycoxylate aminotransferase, causes an inability to break down glyoxylate leading to the formation of oxalate-based stones in the kidney and bladder.

  • Signs and symptoms

    Affected dogs may have excessive thirst and urination and strain while urinating. If in kidney failure, they may not be able to produce urine, vomit, and be lethargic.

    Signs are often first noted in puppies.

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  • Diagnosis

    Genetic and laboratory testing are used to diagnosis this disorder.

  • Treatment

    If diagnosed early, this disorder can be managed with dietary and lifestyle changes. However, if a puppy presents in kidney failure, aggressive treatment including hospitalization will be required and the puppy will have a poor prognosis.

  • What to do if your dog is at risk


    • Closely monitoring your dog's urination habits, routine lab work, and following your veterinarian's nutritional advice are the best ways to keep your dog healthy.

  • Genetic Information

    This mutation was first described in the Coton de Tulear.

    This mutation is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner; that is, a dog requires two copies of the mutation to show signs of the disease.

    Gene names:

    AGXT (Exon 2) ‐ chr

    Inheritance type:


  • Breeds affected

    This health condition affects the following breeds

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