Factor XI Deficiency

Blood

Factor XI (FXI) Deficiency is an autosomally (not sex-linked) inherited blood clotting disorder and typically only causes a problem after surgery or trauma. Increased bleeding may be observed two to four days post-incident.

  • Signs and symptoms

    After surgery or trauma, affected dogs may display bleeding or clotted blood (hematomas) around surgical sites, gastrointestinal bleeding, bruising of the skin, bloody urine, and/or nose bleeds. Increased bleeding or hematomas may not be observed until two to four days post-incident.

    Factor XI Deficiency is typically diagnosed in puppies or young adults when they are spayed or neutered and have a problem with clotting. However, it can be diagnosed at any age.

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  • Diagnosis

    A measure of Factor XI is the definitive diagnostic test, although levels vary significantly. Factor XI Deficiency is characterized by a normal prothrombin time (PT) and a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT).

  • Treatment

    Currently, Factor XI Deficiency cannot be treated, only managed. With proper care, dogs can have a normal lifespan with this condition despite increased blood clotting times. Veterinarians performing surgery on known affected dogs should have ready access to blood products banked for transfusions. However, the risk of bleeding from FXI Deficiency is lower than compared to some other factor deficiencies.

  • What to do if your dog is at risk

    Actions

    • Prevention is key. Be aware of clinical signs of bleeding and take care to minimize the risk of trauma.
    • Inform your veterinarian so that surgeries can be carefully planned, and be aware of the location of the nearest emergency veterinary hospital in case of an accident.

  • Genetic Information

    This variant was first described in the Kerry Blue Terrier.

    This variant is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning a dog must have two copies of the variant to be affected by it.

    Gene names:

    F11 Exon 7 ‐ chr16

    Inheritance type:

    recessive

  • Breeds affected

    This health condition affects the following breeds

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