What are the signs & symptoms that develop in affected dogs?
After surgery or trauma, affected dogs may display bleeding or clotted blood (hematomas) around surgical sites, gastrointestinal bleeding, bruising of the skin, bloody urine, and/or nose bleeds. Increased bleeding or hematomas may not be observed until two to four days post-incident.
When do signs and symptoms develop?
Factor XI Deficiency is typically diagnosed in puppies or young adults when they are spayed or neutered and have a problem with clotting. However, it can be diagnosed at any age.
How do vets diagnose this condition?
A measure of Factor XI is the definitive diagnostic test, although levels vary significantly. Factor XI Deficiency is characterized by a normal prothrombin time (PT) and a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT).
How is this condition treated?
Currently, Factor XI Deficiency cannot be treated, only managed. With proper care, dogs can have a normal lifespan with this condition despite increased blood clotting times. Veterinarians performing surgery on known affected dogs should have ready access to blood products banked for transfusions. However, the risk of bleeding from FXI Deficiency is lower than compared to some other factor deficiencies.
What actions should I take if my dog is affected?
- Prevention is key. Be aware of clinical signs of bleeding and take care to minimize the risk of trauma.
- Inform your veterinarian so that surgeries can be carefully planned, and be aware of the location of the nearest emergency veterinary hospital in case of an accident.