Xanthine Urolithiasis

Kidney and Bladder

Hereditary Xanthinuria is a rare cause of urinary disease and can lead to bladder stones and secondary kidney injury.

  • Signs and symptoms

    Affected dogs may strain to urinate, urinate small amounts frequently, have blood in their urine, or be unable to urinate at all (a medical emergency).

    Signs typically develop in early life, although dogs can be diagnosed at any age. Most dogs have been diagnosed with this condition by five years of age.

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  • Diagnosis

    A veterinarian may use a combination of diagnostic tests, including blood work, urinalysis, ultrasound, and stone analysis.

  • Treatment

    If the affected dog has xanthine stones in the bladder, they may need to be surgically removed. Prescription diets are typically required for lifelong care and to prevent further stones from forming.

  • What to do if your dog is at risk


    • Please consult your veterinarian for appropriate diagnostics, treatment, and management options.
    • Make sure to feed your dog according to your veterinarian’s recommendations.

  • Genetic Information

    This variant was first described in a mixed-breed dog.

    This variant is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that a dog requires two copies of the variant to show signs of hereditary xanthinuria.

    Gene names:

    XDH Exon 8 ‐ chr

    Inheritance type:


  • Breeds affected

    This health condition affects the following breeds

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