What are the signs & symptoms that develop in affected dogs?
Affected dogs may have dystonia (uncontrollable muscle contractions) and muscle spasms multiple times a day. However, the affected dog will appear clinically normal between episodes.
When do signs and symptoms develop?
Signs typically first appear in young adults.
How do vets diagnose this condition?
Genetic testing, blood work, neurological tests, and clinical signs can be used to diagnose this condition.
How is this condition treated?
There is no treatment for this condition, however, anti-seizure medications are sometimes prescribed. These may or may not improve clinical signs.